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Under the National Constitution of Argentina, the only authority capable of issuing legal currency is the Central Bank. Bitcoins are not legal currency strictly speaking, since they are not issued by the government monetary authority and are not legal tender. Therefore, they may be considered money but not legal currency, since they are not a mandatory means of cancelling debts or obligations. Although bitcoins are not specifically regulated, they are increasingly being used in Argentina, a country that has strict controls over foreign currencies. According to some experts a bitcoin may be considered a good or a thing under the Civil Code,and transactions with bitcoins may be governed by the rules of the sale of goods under the Civil Code.
The latest amendment to the Income Tax Law provides that the profit derived from the sale of digital currency will be considered income and taxed as such.
Belize does not appear to have any legislation that specifically regulates cryptocurrencies. Trading businesses in Belize are regulated by the International Financial Services Commission of Belize. The Commission does not appear to issue licenses for companies to engage in cryptocurrency exchanges.
Bermuda does not have legislation or regulations that specifically govern cryptocurrencies. The government is, however, in the early stages of crafting legislation and regulations that aim to establish Bermuda as an international destination for digital currencies, like its position in the insurance and reinsurance sectors.
In late 2017, the government of Bermuda launched a task force to “advance the regulatory environment and develop Bermuda as a destination for Utility Tokens, Tokenized Securities, Cryptocurrencies and Coin Offerings” The aims of the task force are as follows:
Creating a Crypto Currency Association with a defined Code of Conduct and Rules of Operation. The Bermuda Crypto Association is in the process of being formed and our aim is for this Group to be self-governing.
The Bermuda Monetary Authority in conjunction with the Ministry of Finance will work together to draft a letter or document confirming; Utility Tokens are not a security as long as there is no promise of future value. They will allow companies from all over the world to set up in Bermuda for Crowd Funding.
Most importantly, the Legal and Regulatory Working Group will provide confirmation that Utility Tokens are not prohibited or contravening any local legislation.
The task force has two working groups, directed by the Minister of National Security. One group is the Blockchain Legal and Regulatory Working Group and is tasked with ensuring that Bermuda’s legislation and regulations are conducive for the development of cryptocurrencies. The other is known as the Blockchain Business Development Working Group, which is tasked with aiding in the development of technology for cryptocurrencies. The Business Development Agency is also partnering with the government in this endeavor to help bring new business to the island, create new jobs, and boost its gross domestic product.
The government is also aiming to introduce a framework to regulate distributed ledger technologies (DLT) this year, to regulate firms that operate in or from Bermuda and use DLT to “store or transmit value belonging to others, such as virtual currency exchanges, coins and securitized tokens.” This would cover “the promotion and sale of utility tokens, aligned with the DLT framework.” There have been no further statements on the government of Bermuda’s public website that discuss the proposed regulatory framework.
On January 17, 2018, the Bermuda Monetary Authority issued a press release warning of the risks of initial coin offerings, noting that whether such offerings fall within its regulatory boundaries is determined on a case-by-case basis, but that most such offerings are “unregulated because there are no requirements with which they are required to comply at this time.”
The use of virtual currencies is prohibited in Bolivia. The Central Bank has stated that the use of currency not issued by the monetary authority is not allowed in the country. Cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin are not regulated and therefore, the Central Bank warns about the possible losses that people using them are exposed to.
On November 16, 2017, the Brazilian Federal Reserve Bank (Banco Central do Brasil) issued Notice No. 31,379 alerting citizens to the risks arising from the custody and trading operations of virtual currencies. The notice stated in part as follows:
Considering the growing interest of the economic agents (society and institutions) in so-called virtual currencies, the Brazilian Federal Reserve Bank warns that these are neither issued nor guaranteed by any monetary authority, so they have no guarantee of conversion to sovereign currencies, nor are they backed in real assets of any kind, being the entire risk of the holders.
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4. Companies that negotiate or keep so-called virtual currencies on behalf of users, natural persons or legal entities are not regulated, authorized, or supervised by the Brazilian Federal Reserve Bank. There is no specific regulation on virtual currencies in the legal and regulatory framework related to the National Financial System. The Brazilian Federal Reserve Bank, in particular, does not regulate or supervise operations with virtual currencies.
5. So-called virtual currency is not to be confused with the definition of electronic money referred to in Law 12,865 of October 9, 2013, and its regulation by means of normative acts issued by the Brazilian Federal Reserve Bank, according to the guidelines of the National Monetary Council…
Canada allows the use of cryptocurrencies, including Bitcoin. According to a Financial Consumer Agency of Canada webpage on digital currencies, “you can use digital currencies to buy goods and services on the Internet and in stores that accept digital currencies. You may also buy and sell digital currency on open exchanges, called digital currency or cryptocurrency exchanges.” However, cryptocurrencies, including Bitcoin, are not considered legal tender in Canada; “only the Canadian dollar is considered official currency in Canada” The Currency Act defines legal tender as
- bank notes issued by the Bank of Canada under the Bank of Canada Act
- coins issued under the Royal Canadian Mint Act.
Canada’s tax laws and rules also apply to digital currency transactions, including those made with cryptocurrencies, and digital currencies are subject to the Income Tax Act. The Canada Revenue Agency (CRA) “has characterized cryptocurrency as a commodity and not a government-issued currency” Accordingly, the use of cryptocurrency to pay for goods or services is “treated as a barter transaction.” According to the Financial Consumer Agency, goods purchased using digital currency must be included in the seller’s income for tax purposes. GST/HST also applies on the fair market value of any goods or services you buy using digital currency.
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When you file your taxes, you must report any gains or losses from selling or buying digital currencies.
On the issue of taxation, the Canada Revenue Agency adds that,
where digital currency is used to pay for goods or services, the rules for barter transactions apply. A barter transaction occurs when any two persons agree to exchange goods or services and carry out that exchange without using legal currency. For example, paying for movies with digital currency is a barter transaction. The value of the movies purchased using digital currency must be included in the seller’s income for tax purposes. The amount to be included would be the value of the movies in Canadian dollars.
On June 19, 2014, the Governor General of Canada gave his assent to Bill C-31 (An Act to Implement Certain Provisions of the Budget Tabled in Parliament on February 11, 2014, and Other Measures), which includes amendments to Canada’s Proceeds of Crime (Money Laundering) and Terrorist Financing Act. The new law treats virtual currencies, including Bitcoin, as “money service businesses” for the purposes of the anti-money laundering law.The Act is regarded as the “world’s first national law on digital currencies, and certainly the world’s first treatment in law of digital currency financial transactions under national anti-money laundering law.”
On August 24, 2017, the Canadian Securities Administrators (CSA) published CSA Staff Notice 46-307 on Cryptocurrency Offerings, “which outlines how securities law requirements may apply to initial coin offerings (ICOs), initial token offerings (ITOs), cryptocurrency investment funds and the cryptocurrency exchanges trading these products.” On February 1, 2018, The Globe and Mail reported that the Ontario Securities Commission had approved the country’s first blockchain fund—Blockchain Technologies ETF.
The Bank of Canada, Payments Canada, and R3, a distributed database technology company, are involved in a research initiative called Project Jasper “to understand how distributed ledger technology (DLT) could transform the wholesale payments system.” Phases 1 and 2 of the project are “focused on exploring the clearing and settlement of high-value interbank payments using DLT.” Phase 3 explores “the potential benefits from integrating this “cash on ledger” with other assets such as foreign exchange and securities.”
According to an unofficial statement from the Central Bank of Chile virtual currencies have no specific legal recognition in the country and trade and transactions involving cryptocurrency are not subject to the regulation or supervision of the monetary authority.
The Superintendencia Financiera (SF) (Financial Superintendence) of Colombia warned in a June 2017 circular that bitcoin is not currency in Colombia and therefore may not be considered legal tender susceptible of cancelling debts. The SF further emphasized that the Colombian peso is the only legal currency, and that the Banco de la República has the exclusive authority to issue money in Colombia. According to the SF, cryptocurrencies have no value under capital market laws and therefore are also not recognized as a security. The SF warned controlled financial institutions that they are not authorized to protect, invest, broker, or manage virtual money operations. The SF called on persons to become informed and assume the risks related to virtual currencies if they choose to trade them, since these currencies do not have any private or state guarantee.
The Central Bank of Costa Rica and its decentralized agencies (órganos de desconcentración máxima) issued a statement in October 2017 to participants in the financial, stock, securities, insurance, and pension markets, and to exchange houses, remittance agencies, the economic sector, and the general public, warning them about the risks associated with the acquisition of cryptocurrencies with the intention of using them either as financial savings or as a means of payment in Costa Rica. The statement explained that articles 42-51 of the Organic Law of the Central Bank establishes the colón as the monetary currency in Cost Rica. The statement also asserted that the Law designates the Central Bank as the sole issuer of bills and coins and establishes the unlimited power of the colón to liquidate all kinds of pecuniary obligations, both public and private. Due to this, the statement said, Bitcoin and similar cryptocurrencies are not recognized as legal tender in the country and do not have the backing of the Central Bank or the state of Costa Rica. Moreover, cryptocurrencies’ effectiveness or use as a means of payment in the economy of the country cannot be guaranteed, nor can any person be forced to accept them as a means of payment for the transaction of goods and services.
The statement also asserted that because cryptocurrencies are not issued by a foreign central bank, they cannot be considered a foreign currency under the monetary exchange regime, and for this reason they do not have the security offered by the free currency convertibility provisions of articles 48 and 49 of the Organic Law of the Central Bank.
In the statement, the Central Bank and its decentralized agencies emphasized that they do not in any way regulate or supervise cryptocurrencies as a means of payment; moreover, they emphasized that transactions with cryptocurrencies cannot be made through the National System of Electronic Payment (SINPE) used in Costa Rica.
The statement warned that if any financial entity becomes directly or indirectly involved with its customers in the commercialization or use of any of these digital assets, such operation are undertaken at the financial entity’s own risk and responsibility, as well as that of its customers. The statement added that the foregoing is in accordance with the obligation established by prudential regulations on the prevention of money laundering and the financing of terrorism, which imposes a duty on financial entities to carry out the necessary risk analysis with respect to new technologies.
The statement reiterated that any person who acquires digital currencies, either as a form of savings or with the interest of using them as means of payment, and those who accept them with this function in commercial transactions, also do so at their own risk and responsibility, warning that they will be participating in operations not contemplated by the banking regulations or the payment mechanisms authorized by the Central Bank of Costa Rica. The statement concluded by saying that the warnings it contains are not limiting and do not exclude other risks inherent in the use of digital currency, and that the Central Bank will continue to study the issue.
The Central Bank of Ecuador has stated that Bitcoin is not an authorized payment method in Ecuador. It further clarified that the bitcoin, as a cryptocurrency, is not backed by any authority, because its value is based merely on speculation. Furthermore, financial transactions with bitcoins are not controlled, supervised, or regulated by any Ecuadoran entity, and therefore they represent a financial risk for those who invest in them.
The Central Bank also stated, however, that the purchase and sale of cryptocurrencies such as bitcoin through the internet are not forbidden, but it reiterated that bitcoin is not legal tender and is not an authorized payment method for goods and services according to the Código Orgánico Monetario y Financiero (Organic Monetary and Financial Code).
The Central Reserve Bank of El Salvador issued a statement on November 6, 2017, expressing its position on cryptocurrencies, which can be summarized as follows:
- At the international and national level there is a discussion about the use of cryptocurrencies.
- Cryptocurrencies are not legal tender in any jurisdiction; they, unlike the conventional currencies issued by a monetary authority, are not controlled or regulated and their price is determined by the supply and demand of their market.
- In accordance with articles 36–37 of the Organic Law of the Central Reserve Bank of El Salvador, and articles 3 and 6 of the Monetary Integration Law of El Salvador, the colón and the United States dollar are the only unrestricted legal tender that can be used for the payment of monetary obligations in the national territory.
- Any transaction that is made with virtual currency is the responsibility and risk of the person who carries it out.
- Fundraising using digital currencies is prohibited. According to article 184 of the Banking Law, all public fundraising with or without advertising, and in any form, is prohibited by those who are not authorized in accordance with the Banking Law, or other laws in force that regulate fundraising.
- According to the Central Reserve Bank, as the monetary authority, regulator of the financial system, and watchdog of payment systems, there is currently no legal or regulatory framework applicable to cryptocurrencies or their equivalents.
- The Central Reserve Bank will remain vigilant on this and other related issues.
In December 2017 the acting President of the Bank of Guatemala, Sergio Recinos, confirmed that both Bitcoin and other types of cryptocurrencies are not legal tender in the country and do not have regulatory backing. He stated that according to Guatemalan legislation, the quetzal is the national currency and the Bank of Guatemala is the only issuer of bills and coins within the national territory, in accordance with articles 1 and 2 of the Monetary Law (Ley Monetaria). In this sense, virtual currencies are not recognized as a currency in Guatemala and neither are, they recognized as foreign currency; therefore, they do not constitute a means of legal payment. Recinos added that due to their anonymous origin, cryptocurrencies can easily be used for illicit activities, such as money laundering, terrorism, drug purchases, and tax evasion, among others, to a degree that could be higher than with cash. Moreover, he said that cryptocurrencies are exposed to cyberattacks or hacking, which could lead to irreversible loss for the user. Lastly, Recinos warned that cryptocurrencies are not backed by any government and do not depend on a central bank issuer; therefore, no one is trying to maintain their value over time. He recommended that persons carefully examine the issue before deciding to invest in cryptocurrencies.
In January 2018, the Honduran Central Bank issued a statement in response to inquiries made by economic and financial agents in relation to the use of cryptocurrencies within the national territory, either as an investment or as a means of payment for goods and services. The response stated that cryptocurrencies such as bitcoin, ethereum, litecoin, and other similar cryptocurrencies do not have the backing of the Central Bank of Honduras. Therefore, the Central Bank does not regulate or guarantee their use and such cryptocurrencies do not enjoy the legal protection granted by the laws of the country in terms of the payment system. As a result, any transaction that is made with this type of currency or virtual assets is the responsibility and risk of the person who conducts the transaction, the statement said.
Mexico’s Law to Regulate Financial Technology Companies, enacted in March 2018, includes a chapter on operations with “virtual assets,” commonly known as cryptocurrencies. This chapter defines virtual assets as representations of value electronically registered and utilized by the public as a means of payment for all types of legal transactions, which may only be transferred electronically.
In addition, Mexico has enacted a law extending the application of its laws regarding money laundering to virtual assets, thereby requiring financial institutions that provide services relating to such assets to report transactions exceeding certain amounts.
Mexico’s Central Bank is granted broad powers under the Law to regulate virtual assets, including
- specifying those virtual assets that financial companies are allowed to operate with in the country, defining their particular characteristics, and establishing the conditions and restrictions applicable to transactions with such assets; and
- authorizing financial companies to perform transactions with virtual assets.
Pertinent regulations applicable to these assets must be issued by Mexico’s Central Bank within a year from the enactment of the Law.
Financial companies that carry out transactions with virtual assets must disclose to their clients the risks applicable to these assets. At a minimum, these companies must inform their clients, in a clear and accessible manner on their respective websites or through the means that they utilize to provide services, of the following:
- A virtual asset is not a legal currency and is not backed by the federal government nor by Mexico’s Central Bank;
- Once executed, transactions with virtual assets may be irreversible;
- The value of virtual assets is volatile; and
- Technological, cybernetic, and fraud risks are inherent in virtual assets.
- A more detailed report is available.
Under Decree 3196 of December 8, 2017, the government of Venezuela was authorized to create its own cryptocurrency, the petro, which would be physically backed by Venezuelan barrels of oil. One petro would be backed by a purchase-sale contract for one barrel of Venezuelan oil as quoted in the OPEC Reference Basket, as well as other commodities, including gold, diamond, coltan, and gas.
Decree 3196 mainly provides for the operational details of the petro, including its issuance, mining, and trading in Venezuela according to the rules on purchase and sale contained in the Civil Code. According to a legal expert on information technology law, all cryptocurrencies are considered a financial asset subject to the rules applicable to such assets under Decree 3196 and none of its provisions declare them illegal.The Decree also creates the Superintendencia de los Criptoactivos y Actividades Conexas Venezolana (Superintendency of Venezuelan Crypto-Assets and Related Activities) as the supervisory authority of cryptocurrencies.
Decree 3196 states that the holder of petro will be able to exchange the market value of the cryptoasset for the equivalent in another cryptocurrency or in bolívares (the traditional currency of Venezuela) at the market exchange rate published by a national cryptoasset exchange house.The holder of each petro would also own a virtual wallet, which was to be his/her own responsibility, along with the risks related to its custody and management.
According to Decree 3196, an initial coin offering will be made through auction or direct assignment by the Superintendence of Cryptoassets and Related Venezuelan Activities.
On March 8, the Asamblea Nacional (National Assembly, the Venezuelan Congress), declared that the issuance of a domestic cryptocurrency such as the petro is illegal, because in order to enter into a public debt and borrow on behalf of the Venezuelan government, congressional approval and a special law is required under the National Constitution. In addition, only the Central Bank of Venezuela may issue national currency. The Asamblea National further stated that oil reserves are public national assets that belong to the Republic and are non-transferrable assets, and therefore cannot be used as guarantee for any debt.
Despite these declarations by the Asamblea National, the Government has said the petro will become legal tender for all transactions involving government institutions within 120 days of April 9, 2018.
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